2008/12/04

Pusat Peperiksaan RAE 2008-2 SKMM Centre Region

Maltrade Hall
Level 3, Menara Maltrade
Jalan Khidmat Usaha Off Jalan Duta
504450 Kuala Lumpur
Date: 17 December 2008 Wednesday
Time: 2.00 PM
Good Luck !!!

2008/11/18

HF Radio Idaman....

Spec:
AM/SSB/CW Modes
Digital S/RF Meter
180-10 Meters
Noise Blanker
VOX Function
IF Shift
Automatic Notch
100 Watt Output (40 AM)
RIT
Multi Function Meter
Keypad Input
CW Keyer
Front Firing Speaker
Microphone Compressor
Optional UT-102 Voice Synthesizer
10 Hz Readout
1 Hz Tuning
Lock
Ni HF radio idaman aku. Rakan ham yg lain semua dah terbang jauh. Aku masih ti takuk yg lama. Mungkin rezeki depa lebih. Mungkin Rezeki aku utk beli HF radio ni belum sampai. Tapi insyallah akan di usahakan untuk mendapat HF radio ni. Tapi macamana? Aku pikir la sendiri nanti. Tapi sebelum tu........betul ka kata orang Ham radio untuk orang2 yang kaya saja. Ye la nampak diorang sederhana saja tapi mampu beli HF radio ni. Tapi bagi aku la mungkin tidak...... cuba kita ubah pemikiran kita supaya menganggap radio amator ni "hobi" aku rasa kalau dah hobi tak salah beli kalau mampu. Kalau tak mampu jangan beli. Lagi satu hobi, hobi jugak tanggungjawab lain tak bulih tinggal.....tanggungjawab pada agama, family dan sebagainya. Kesimpulan nya anggaplah radio ham ni sebagai hobi.

2008/11/16

Dulu aku nak jadi cikgu.....tapi tak kesampaian

Ni la gambar aku dengan rakan-rakan kelas science dan matematik. Aku rasa ni jalan hidup aku nak jadi Cikgu.
Tapi nak buat macamana tak dak rezeki. 1 semester saja aku dekat maktab. Lepas tu aku keluar.
Hanya kawan-kawan yang tahu kenapa. Bukan ada masalah disiplin pun. Tapi tak ada rezeki. Mungkin anda yg membaca atau melihat mungkin beranggapan "kalau keluar maktab tu mungkin ada masalah disiplin" Tapi sebenarnya TIDAK!!!. Pengorbanan aku menyenangkan rakan-rakan aku yang mengambil 1st Diploma perguruan malaysia. Aku terpaksa sebut....sememangnya aku tak suka sebut. Sampai sekarang budak yg jadi cikgu dah senang lenang. Skrg dah ada rakan cikgu yang satu batch dengan aku dulu dah jadi rakan amator. Antaranya 9w2bj dan 9w2llk mungkin diaorang tahu kenapa dan mungkin diaorang tak tahu kenapa. Hanya rakan yang benar-benar tahu adalah semua rakan yang ada dalam gambar ni. Kenapa aku letak gambar ini di blog? 1st ikut suka aku la blog aku. 2nd aku tengah mencari semua rakan aku dalam gambar ni. Ada yang aku dah dapat contact seperti bushra, marina, yahya dan ada 2 3 org lagi aku lupa nama. Tapi yang lain belum. Ni la sedikit sebanyak kisah aku dulu nak jadi cikgu. Skrg ni aku bersyukur bila aku masuk MARA. Bukan MARApu so aku TERambik bidang electronic. Alhamdulillah aku dah kerja dekat MIMOS SEMICONDUCTOR (mysem)
Dalam gambar tu aku duduk:- dari sebelah kanan barisan depan duduk number 3.

Dulu aku......

Ha ni la aku dulu sebelum kahwin.....tapi sekarang dah lain lagi comel
tapi tak pa aku akan cuba balik macam ni insyallah
Ada lagi gambar aku yg lagi kurus pun ada.
kalau pendapat anda gambar aku dulu hensem terima kasih byk2
tapi kalau hampeh pun terima kasih jugak
Aku bersyukur pada yang maha esa.

2008/11/04

Open House De Puncak Alam

9W2BJD dan XYL

Jen: mana pegi telo kambing ni aku nak picit

9W2REO-9W2RAE-9W2GTR-9W2RIE-9W2AWI

AWI:Apsal payah sgt ni nak cucuh rokok pun payah

Jejak kasih satu kampung Tmn. Bkt Serdang. Seri Kembangan.
9W2PNC-ZUL. Blakang tu BRo 9W2GTO-SHAM

Jahanam la bila nak masak kambing ni aku blah dulu lah

Aku lah 9W2RAE- dahlan. Oren la baju aku

Terima kasih la byk2 tuan rumah 9W2JIZ- Iskhandar
Kalau ada kenduri jemput lagi.

9W2RIE dan 9W2PNC-ZUL

JEN: REO kau suka main no.....

Bila la api nak nyala kipas mcm ni mata tgk ke lain.

2008/09/26

Selamat Menyambut Hari Raya Aidilfitri Maaf Zahir dan Batin



Selamat Hari Raya Aidilfitri Maaf Zahir dan Batin

Hati-hati ketika memandu pulang ke kampung

73 de 9W2RIE

2008/09/22

Types of Coax Cable and Line Loss Calculator









click here

Types of Coax Cable and Line Loss Calculator

2008/09/14

Electronic Projek Web








DiscoverCircuits.com, has 27,000+ electronic circuits. The electronic schematicsare carefully cross-referenced into 500+ categories. As a vital resource for engineers, hobbyists, inventors & consultants, the site's collection of informationwill help you find quick design ideas to electronic design problems.

Bagi mereka yang berminat dalam electronic circuit boleh mencuba macam-macam electronik circuit dalam website ini. Semoga memberi faedah kepada anda semua. Selamat Mencuba !!!!!

2008/08/06

Program Lawatan ORARI - ASTRA (Wilayah Tengah)

Detail Program
Tema : Bulan Kemerdekaan Warga Amatur Malaysia - Indonesia


Tarikh : 23 - 24 Ogos 2008
Tempat : Kawasan Perkhemahan Awana Genting / Awana Genting Campsite
Keluasan Tempat : 5.3 Hektar
Pengangkutan : Kenderaan Persendirian atau Pengangkutan Awam.

Bayaran
i) RM15 Seorang
ii) RM25 Family
Note: Termasuk Makan Malam, Sarapan & Kemudahan Perkhemahan/Campsite.
Atau
i) RM35 Seorang/Family
Note : Termasuk Sehelai Program T-Shirt, Makan Malam, Sarapan & Kemudahan Perkhemahan/Campsite.

Matlamat
Program ini bertujuan untuk memperingati Hari Kemerdekaan Malaysia & Indonesia oleh warga radio amatur kedua-dua negara. Juga pada masa yang sama bagi mengeratkan silaturrahim diantara warga amatur dari kedua-dua negara.

Pendaftaran
PendaftaranPendaftaran dibuka kepada semua warga amatur, kelab-kelab amatur & komersial & rakan-rakan swal.Untuk memudahkan urusan pendaftraan, sila hubungi AJK/Biro dibawah:
i) List nama di forum ini.
ii) Diacara 2 Meter net di Tranasional ASTRA atau di 2 Meter net 9M4RBC.
iii) 012 310 9869 Faizal 9W2GTR
iv) 016 337 3700 Izkandar 9W2JIZv) Atau mana-mana AJK/Biro ASTRA Wilayah Tengah.

Tarikh tutup pendaftaran : 20 Ogos 2008

Sumbangan
Sebarang bentuk sumbangan amat dialu-alukan.
Sila hubungi terus Pak Yob 9W2YR / Faizal 9W2GTR & Jamal 9W2AJL atau mana-mana AJK/Biro ASTRA Wilayah Tengah.

Marilah kita sama-sama menyertai dan menjayakan program julung-julung kali diadakan ini.


Sekian 73 de 9w2gtr
Mohd Faizal
Email : 9w2gtr@gmail.com
Mobile : 012 310 9869



2008/07/11

CARA MENCARI FREKUENSI SIMPLEX (V-CHANNEL)

1. V16 SEHINGGA V47
Simplex V16 sehingga V47 menggunakan 145MHz sebelum titik perpuluhan (Desimel).
Oleh itu kita hanya perlu mencari MHz selepas titik perpuluhan (Desimel).
Formulanya 12.5 DARAB dengan V Channel.

Contoh 1:
V16 12.5 x 16 = 200
Oleh itu Frekuensi V16 ialah 145.2000

Contoh 2:
V2712.5 x 27 = 337.5
Oleh itu Frekuensi V27 ialah 145.33752.

2. V48 SEHINGGA V63
Simplex V48 sehingga V63 menggunakan 146MHz sebelum titik perpuluhan (Desimel).
Formulanya 12.5 DARAB dengan V Channel TOLAK 200

Contoh 1:
V50 12.5 x 50 = 625 TOLAK 200 = 425
Oleh itu Frekuensi V50 ialah 146.4250

Contoh 2:
V63 12.5 x 63 = 787.5 TOLAK 200 = 587.5
Oleh itu Frekuensi V63 ialah 146.5875

Nota:Oleh kerana selepas titik perpuluhan (Desimel) ada 4 nomber maka jika 3 nomber, ditambah dengan 0 sahaja untuk mencukupkan 4 nomber.
Sumbangan 9W2SMH

2008/06/10

Antenna Yang Mudah Di Buat.....

Rakan-rakan yang berminat boleh teruskan untuk membuat antenna sendiri. Antenna ini kebanyakannya menggunakan barang-barang terpakai. Selamat Berjaya !!!!!



Untuk memudahkan anda semua. Anda boleh lawat website di bawah untuk membuat antenna yagi ni:-

Click here to make the simple antennaSimple Yagi Antenna!

2008/05/22

Ground Plane Antenna

GROUND-PLANE ANTENNA A vertical quarter-wave antenna several wavelengths above ground produces a high angle of radiation that is very undesirable at vhf and uhf frequencies. The most common means of producing a low angle of radiation from such an antenna is to work the radiator against a simulated ground called a GROUND PLANE. A simulated ground may be made from a large metal sheet or several wires or rods radiating from the base of the radiator. An antenna so constructed is known as a GROUND-PLANE ANTENNA. Two ground-plane antennas are shown in figure , views A and B.



Figure .—Ground-plane antennas. CORNER REFLECTOR When a unidirectional radiation pattern is desired, it can be obtained by the use of a corner reflector with a half-wave dipole. A CORNER-REFLECTOR ANTENNA is a half-wave radiator with a reflector. The reflector consists of two flat metal surfaces meeting at an angle immediately behind the radiator. In other words, the radiator is set in the plane of a line bisecting the corner angle formed by the reflector

Click here to make the simple antenna
Simple Ground Plane Antenna!

Design Ground Plane Antenna by Calculation
Ground Plane Antenna! by Calculation

2008/04/13

Mesyuarat Astra Tengah Selangor Dan Kuala Lumpur

Astra Selangor akan mengadakan mesyuarat tahunan di :-
Tarikh: 30 April 2008
Hari: Rabu
Masa: 8.30 malam
Tempat: Dewan JKKK Batu 3 Shah Alam
(Berdekatan dengan Rejab Tom Yam Bt 3 Shah Alam)
Mesyuarat ini di adakan untuk melantik Pengurusi dan AJK baru bagi kawasan tengah bagi menerajui kepimpinan kawasan tengah ini.
Di harap semua ahli astra kawasan tengah Selangor Dan Kuala Lumpur dapat hadir ke mesyuarat ini.
9W2RIE- Amry

2008/02/24

Bulatan Lumba Kuda


Ni la bulatan lumba kuda yg saya selalu mobile bila balik drpd saltmine. Mungkin ramai tak qsl. Bulatan paling senang berdekatan astro. Dari pada bukit jalil tu tak berapa jauh. So kawasan ni paling cantik tx bila nak qso. Rakan terima 5 dan 9 walaupun low whiskey. Ada cerita jugak disini. XYL saya pernah incident jugak dkt sini di langgar bus kilang. So bila lalu kat sini teringat macam2. Saya mobile jalan ni bila balik drpd saltmine saja. Tapi bila datang kerja tak lalu jalan ini. Heeheee itu cerita sedikit sebanyak tentang bulatan kuda ni. Lagi satu jgn alau pada hari jumaat ptg dan malam jugak hari ahad ptg dan malam kerana rakan2 yg main kuda keluar lepas habih main kuda, so jalan jem gila. Sekian.....

24/2/2008 eyeball dengan 9W2GTR

9W2RIE eyaball dengan 9W2GTR (Faizal) dan harmonic beliau di Puncak Alam

2008/02/14

Eyeball rakan amateur PARTS di Pameran radio amateur KG. Gajah

9W2MCB-Pak Ishak pakai cermin mata hitam








Pak Idris 9W2IBH introduce pada rakan baru mengenai radio amateur









Bena info mengenai PARTS








9W2RIE - Kiri 9M2NNL- Pak Nasir, Kanan- 9W2SLJ- Pak Loh
Belakang- Kiri 9W2AME- Tak ingat nama?Klau callsign salah mintak d infokan. Di tengah 9W2IBH- Pak Idris dan Kanan- Lupa callsign dan handle. Maaf la byk2.

2008/02/13

Eyeball dengan 9W2SBD dan 9W2ZLA de UTP

9W2SBD DAN 9W2RIE

9W2RIE DAN 9W2ZLA

2008/02/07

News


04FEB08 – Event Notification: Morse Code Workshop 4 February 2008

SKMM’s Sabah Regional Office together with the Kinabalu Amateur Radio Transmitting Society (KARTS) will be co-organising a workshop on Morse code (CW) in SM St John, Tuaran on the 17 February 2008 (Sunday), 8.30 am - 5.00 pm. The seminar aims to create general awareness on Morse code and general amateur radio usage. It is also serves as a preparatory workshop for prospective CW Test candidates sitting for the upcoming 2008 CW examinations conducted by SKMM. Interested parties are invited to take part in the seminar. Participants will be charged a minimal RM20 registration fee and is participation is open to the general public. To register for the CW Workshop,
please contact:
1) En Roger Merdika Ombulun (9W6RMO) Tel: 013 851 4883; or
2) En Thompson Teo (9M6TMT) E-mail: thompson@tciesabah.com.my.

2008/01/13

DECIBELS

For some strange reason, many people misunderstand and have difficulty with the
concept of decibels (abbr. "dB"). That's really a shame because decibels are used in a wide
variety of radio and electronics applications. This form of notation is widely used because it
makes the job of calculating things like gains and losses much easier. By using decibel
notation we can replace multiplication (gains) and division (losses) with addition and
subtraction, respectively.
The decibel is nothing more than an expression of the ratio between two signals. The
signals might be voltages, currents or power levels. When rendered in the form of decibel
notation, however, the logarithms of the ratios are used rather than the straight arithmetical
ratios. It is the use of the log of the ratios that makes it possible to replace multiplication and
division calculations with addition and subtraction.
The decibel was originally conceived by the telephone industry to describe audio
signal gains and losses in telephone circuits. The original unit was named the bel after
Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone. In most electronics work, however, the
bel proved to be too large a unit, so the decibel (one-tenth of a bel) was adopted as the
standard notation.

Special dB Scales
Over the years different segments of the radio and electronics industry have created
special decibel scales for their own use. All of them are based on the three equations given
above. The differences are in the specified conditions under which the measurements are
made, and the specific level used as a reference point. The standard reference voltage or
power will be placed in the denominator of the equation, and is usually referred to as the "0
dB" reference level. This name comes from the fact that placing the same level in the
numerator produces a ratio of 1:1, or 0 dB. Several different special dB scales are listed
below.

dBm. These units refer to decibels relative to one milliwatt (1 mW) of power
dissipated in a 50 ohm resistive impedance (defined as the 0 dBm reference level), and is
calculated from either 10 LOG (PWATTS/0.001) or 10 LOG (PMW). The dBm scale is used in
describing receivers and amplifiers. For example, an input signal or an output signal may be
defined in terms of dBm. Similarly, the noise floor of the receiver may be given in dBm.

dBmV. This unit is used in television receiver systems in which the system
impedance is 75 ohms, rather than the 50 ohms normally used in other RF systems. It refers
to the signal voltage, measured in decibels, with respect to a signal level of one millivolt (1
mV) across a 75 ohm resistance (0 dBmv). In many TV specs, 1 mV is the full quieting
signal that produces no "snow" (i.e. noise) in the displayed picture.

dBmV. This unit refers to a signal voltage, measured in decibels, relative to one
microvolt (1 mV) developed across a 50 ohm resistive impedance (0 dBmV).

dB (Old). An archaic dB unit used in the telephone industry prior to World War II
used 6 milliwatts dissipated in a 500 ohm resistive load at the 0 dB reference level.

Volume Units (VU). This unit is used in audio work, and largely replaces the old dB
scale given above. In the VU scale 0 VU is 1 milliwatt dissipated in a 600 ohm resistive
load.

Antenna dB Notation
Decibel notation is frequently seen in specifications for radio antennas. The gain, the
front-to-back ratio and/or the front-to-side ratio are typically specified in decibels. In the
case of the front-to-back or front-to-side ratios the values are measured by having the
antenna look at a constant power RF source while it is rotated. The signal levels are
measured at the front, side and back so that the ratios can be calculated.
The matter of gain is a little different, however. What do you use as a reference for
antennas? There are two basic forms of gain specification: gain relative to isotropic (dBi)
and gain relative to a dipole (dBd). Gain relative to isotropic (dBi) uses a theoretical construct called an isotropic
radiator, which is a spherical source of RF energy that radiates equally well in all directions.
The available power is distributed equally across the entire surface of the sphere. Gain
antennas distribute the same amount of power over a much smaller portion of the sphere, so
calculations can easily be made. The isotropic gain method is preferred by professional
antenna designers. Gain relative to a dipole (dBd) uses a half wavelength dipole as the reference. When
both antennas are set up to intercept the same signal, then the gain of the test antenna is
found by measuring the signal levels of both the test antenna and the dipole reference
antenna, and then performing the calculation. The dBd measurement is about 2 dB higher
than the dBi measurement.

Some dB Lore
Because radio signals are discussed in decibels some rather odd notions pop up. Let's
take a look at some of those that historically have been quite popular.

The S-Meter Folly. Amateur radio operators and shortwave listeners use the Smeter
to compare signal strengths. The standard signal reporting system, worked out by
ARRL many years ago, uses S1 through S9, in which S9 represents "...an extremely strong
signal." Receiver S-meters are often calibrated to +60 dB over S-9. What does this mean?
Well, it means that telling someone they are "60-dB over S-9" means that their signal is onemillion
times stronger than an extremely strong signal. Why, that signal level ought to melt
the insulation off your transmission line?
Another S-Meter Folly. Swapping S-meter stories back and forth is basically a
useless exercise. Why? Because there are multiple standards for calibrating S-meters. There
will be a reference input signal level to establish the 0 dB point, and then an increment for
each S-unit. I've seen S-meters calibrated such that 50 mV across the 50-ohm input
impedance constitutes an S-9 signal, while other receivers required 100 mV for an S-9. I've
seen receivers calibrated at 3-dB/S-unit, while others are calibrated at 6-dB/S-unit (more
common).

Note: A signal that is "60-dB over S-9" should have an rms input level of
(pick a standard level) 50 mV ´ 1,000,000 = 50 volts! Wow! That oughta
knock your socks off!

CBer's Folly. In the early days of Citizens Band the transceivers used vacuum tube
technology. It was quite common for CBers to boost the power of their rigs by either
changing the DC power supply voltage to all elements of the tubes, or (more common)
upping the positive voltage applied to the screen grid of the power amplifier tube. A
common modification of one series of models raised the power from the legal 5-watts to a
whopping (and illegal) 7-watts. The gain in dB is 10 LOG (7/5) = 1.46 dB. OK, so now they
have an illegal rig, but have they accomplished anything? Let's see.

The S-unit on receivers is usually defined (loosely) as the smallest change that is
easily noted by the average listener. If the conservative 3-dB/S-unit applies, then 1.46 dB
represents around half an S-unit...or about half the change that the other person can detect
with their ears! What a waste. The reliability of those circuits was reduced, the owner
exposed to legal sanctions, all for a change that no one could detect. Wow...that's smart!
Ham's Folly. Knock the CBers and you gotta knock hams as well. I once owned a
1,200-watt linear amplifier. A friend of mine also had the same model, but he traded his in
on a 2,000-watt linear amplifier. He claimed "I'm really getting out now!" Was he? The gain
at the other end would be 10 LOG (2,000/1,200) = 2.2 dB...or a bit less than an S-unit.

Because of the way power changes and signal strength are related, the FCC for a
long time restricted commercial and broadcasting stations to power increases of at least fives
times the old level. Thus, a 500-watt station would not normally be allowed to go to 1,000-
watt, but rather a minimum of 2,500-watts. Or the "standard" 1,000-watt local AM station
might go to 5,000-watts. A 5:1 change results in 6.9 dB increase, so it's about two S-units.
As to me and my friend? I kept my money in the bank while he spent his...and no
one could tell the difference between our signals.
The Huge, Monster VSWR Loss. Hams and SWLs spend a lot of time and money
reducing the VSWR of antennas to as close to 1:1 as humanly possible. But there is a point
of diminishing returns. According to one method of calculating VSWR mismatch loss, a
2.5:1 VSWR could be as much as 1.43 dB or as little as 0.89 dB. Big deal! How does that
affect an S-meter? The reason for reducing the VSWR for solid-state transmitters is the
sensitivity of the transistors in the output, not the loss.

In general, the only people who have to worry a lot about tweeking a system to
squeeze out every fractional decibel of signal are those who work with extremely weak
signals. Radio astronomers, for example, go to great lengths to get as much gain as possible,
and reduce losses to the bare minimum. But then again, they are dealing with power levels
most conveniently measured in millimicronanofemtowatts. Mere mortals can worry a little
less and get on with the prospect of enjoying our hobby!
From:
Joseph J. Carr
Universal Radio Research
6830 Americana Parkway
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068

Morse code trainer