What Is Step and Touch Potential and Reducing Resistance To Ground?

Step Potential

Step potential is the step voltage between the feet of a person standing near an energized grounded object. It is equal to the difference in voltage, given by the voltage distribution curve, between two points at different distances from the electrode. A person could be at risk of injury during a fault simply by standing near the grounding point.

Touch Potential

Touch potential is the touch voltage between the energized object and the feet of a person in contact with the object. It is equal to the difference in voltage between the object and a point some distance away. The touch potential or touch voltage could be nearly the full voltage across the grounded object if that object is grounded at a point remote from the place where the person is in contact with it. For example, a crane that was grounded to the system neutral and that contacted an energized line would expose any person in contact with the crane or its uninsulated load line to a touch potential nearly equal to the full fault voltage.

Step Potential

When a fault occurs at a tower or substation, the current will enter the earth. Based on the distribution of varying resistivity in the soil (typically, a horizontally layered soil is assumed) a corresponding voltage distribution will occur. The voltage drop in the soil surrounding the grounding system can present hazards for personnel standing in the vicinity of the grounding system. Personnel “stepping” in the direction of the voltage gradient could be subjected to hazardous voltages.

In the case of Step Potentials or step voltage, electricity will flow if a difference in potential exists between the two legs of a person. Calculations must be performed that determine how great the tolerable step potentials are and then compare those results to the step voltages expected to occur at the site.

Hazardous Step Potentials or step voltage can occur a significant distance away from any given site. The more current that is pumped into the ground, the greater the hazard. Soil resistivity and layering plays a major role in how hazardous a fault occurring on a specific site may be. High soil resistivities tend to increase Step Potentials. A high resistivity top layer and low resistivity bottom layer tends to result in the highest step voltages close to the ground electrode: the low resistivity bottom layer draws more current out of the electrode through the high resistivity layer, resulting in large voltage drops near the electrode. Further from the ground electrode, the worst case scenario occurs when the soil has conductive top layers and resistive bottom layers: in this case, the fault current remains in the conductive top layer for much greater distances away from the electrode.

Fault clearing time is an important factor to consider as well. The more time it takes the electric utility company to clear the fault, the more likely it is for a given level of current to cause the human heart to


An important note to remember is that most power companies use automated re-closers. In the event of a fault, the power is shut off and then automatically turned back on. This is done in case the faults occurred due to an unfortunate bird that made a poor choice in where to rest, or dust that may have been burned off during the original fault. A few engineers believe that Fibrillation Current for Step Potentials must be far greater than Touch Potentials, as current will not pass through any vital organs in the former case. This is not always true as personnel that receive a shock due to Step Potentials may fall to the ground, only to be hit again, before they can get up, when the automatic re-closers activate.

Touch Potential

When a fault occurs at a tower or substation, the current will pass through any metallic object and enter the earth. Those personnel “touching” an object in the vicinity of the GPR will be subjected to these touch voltages which may be hazardous.

For example if a person happens to be touching a high-voltage tower leg when a fault occurs, the electricity would travel down the tower leg into the person’s hand and through vital organs of the body. It would then continue on its path and exit out through the feet and into the earth. Careful analysis is required to determine the acceptable Fibrillation Currents that can be withstood by the body if a fault were to occur.

Engineering standards use a one-meter (3.28 ft) reach distance for calculating Touch Potentials. A two-meter (6.54 ft) reach distance is used when two or more objects are inside the GPR event area. For example, a person could be outstretching both arms and touching two objects at once such as a tower leg and a metal cabinet. Occasionally, engineers will use a three-meter distance to be particularly cautious, as they assume someone may be using a power tool with a power cord 3 meters in length.

The selection of where to place the reference points used in the Touch Potential or touch voltage calculations are critical in getting an accurate understanding of the level of hazard at a given site. The actual calculation of Touch Potentials uses a specified object (such as a tower leg) as the first reference point. This means that the further away from the tower the other reference point is located, the greater the difference in potential. If you can imagine a person with incredibly long arms touching the tower leg and yet standing many dozens of feet away, you would have a huge difference in potential between their feet and the tower. Obviously, this example is not possible: this is why setting where and how far away the reference points used in the touch calculation is so important and why the one-meter rule has been established.

Mitigating Step and Touch Potential hazards is usually accomplished through one or more of the following three (3) main techniques:

  1. Reduction in the Resistance to Ground of the grounding system
  2. Proper placement of ground conductors
  3. The addition of resistive surface layers

Understanding the proper application of these techniques is the key to reducing and eliminating any Ground Potential Rise hazards. Only through the use of highly sophisticated 3-dimensional electrical simulation software that can model soil structures with multiple layers and finite volumes of different materials, can the engineer accurately model and design a grounding system that will safely handle high-voltage electrical faults.

Reducing Resistance to Ground

Reducing resistance to ground (RTG) of the site is often the best way to reduce the negative effects of any Ground Potential Rise event, where practical. The Ground Potential Rise is the product of the fault current flowing into the grounding system times the resistance to ground of the grounding system. Thus, reducing the Ground Potential Rise will reduce the Ground Potential Rise to the degree that the fault current flowing into the grounding system does increase in response to the reducedGround Potential Rise. For example, if the fault current for a high-voltage tower is 5,000 amps and the resistance to ground of the grounding system is 10-ohms, theGround Potential Rise will be 50,000 volts. If we reduce the resistance to ground of the grounding system down to 5-ohms and the fault current increases to 7,000 amps as a result, then the Ground Potential Rise will become 35,000 volts.

As seen in the example above, the reducing resistance to ground can have the effect of allowing more current to flow into the earth at the site of the fault, but will always result in lower Ground Potential Rise values and step and touch voltages at the fault location. On the other hand, further away from the fault location, at adjacent facilities not connected to the faulted structure, the increase in current into the earth will result in greater current flow near these adjacent facilities and therefore an increase in the Ground Potential Rise, touch voltages and step voltages at these facilities. Of course, if these are low to begin with, an increase may not represent a problem, but there are cases in which a concern may exist. Reducing the resistance to ground can be achieved by any number of means as discussed earlier in this chapter.

Proper Placement of Ground Conductors

A typical specification for ground conductors at high-voltage towers or substations is to install a ground loop around all metallic objects, connected to the objects; keep in mind that it may be necessary to vary the depth and/or distance that ground loops are buried from the structure in order to provide the necessary protection. Typically these ground loops require a minimum size of 2/0 AWG bare copper conductor buried in direct contact with the earth and 3-ft from the perimeter of the object, 18 inches below grade. The purpose of the loop is to minimize the voltage between the object and the earth surface where a person might be standing while touching the object: i.e., to minimize Touch Potentials.

It is important that all metallic objects in a GPR environment be bonded to the ground system to eliminate any difference in potentials. It is also important that the resistivity of the soil as a function of depth be considered in computed touch and step voltages and in determining at what depth to place conductors. For example, in a soil with a dry, high resistivity surface layer, conductors in this layer will be ineffective; a low resistivity layer beneath that one would be the best location for grounding conductors. On the other hand, if another high resistivity layer exists further down, long grounding rods or deep wells extending into this layer will be ineffectual.

It is sometimes believed that placing horizontal grounding loop conductors very close to the surface results in the greatest reduction in Touch Potentials. This is not necessarily so, as conductors close to the surface are likely to be in drier soil, with a higher resistivity, thus reducing the effectiveness of these conductors. Furthermore, while Touch Potentials immediately over the loop may be reduced, Touch Potentials a short distance away may actually increase, due to the decreased zone of influence of these conductors. Finally, Step Potentials are likely to increase at these locations: indeed, Step Potentials can be a concern near conductors that are close to the surface, particularly at the perimeter of a grounding system. It is common to see perimeter conductors around small grounding systems buried to a depth of 3-ft below grade, in order to address this problem.

Reducing Step and Touch Potential Hazards

One of the simplest methods of reducing Step and Touch Potential hazards is to wear Electric Hazard Shoes. When dry, properly rated electric hazard shoes have millions of ohms of resistance in the soles and are an excellent tool for personnel safety. On the other hand, when these boots are wet and dirty, current may bypass the soles of the boots in the film of material that has accumulated on the sides of the boot. A wet leather boot can have a resistance on the order of 100 ohms. Furthermore, it cannot be assumed that the general public, who may have access to the outside perimeter of some sites, will wear such protective gear.

Another technique used in mitigating Step and Touch Potential hazards is the addition of more resistive surface layers. Often a layer of crushed rock is added to a tower or substation to provide a layer of insulation between personnel and the earth. This layer reduces the amount of current that can flow through a given person and into the earth. Weed control is another important factor, as plants become energized during a fault and can conduct hazardous voltages into a person. Asphalt is an excellent alternative, as it is far more resistive than crushed rock, and weed growth is not a problem. The addition of resistive surface layers always improves personnel safety during a GPR event.

Telecommunications in High-Voltage Environments

When telecommunications lines are needed at a high-voltage site, special precautions are required to protect switching stations from unwanted voltages. Running any copper wire into a substation or tower is going to expose the other end of the wire to hazardous voltages and certain precautions are required.

Industry standards regarding these precautions and protective requirements are covered in IEEE Standard 387, IEEE Standard 487, and IEEE Standard 1590.These standards require that a Ground Potential Rise study be conducted so that the 300-volt peak line can be properly calculated.

To protect the cell site and communication towers, telecommunication standards require that fiber-optic cables be used instead of copper wires within the 300-volt peak line. A copper-to-fiber conversion box must be located outside the GPR event area at a distance in excess of the 300-Volt Peak or 212-Volt RMS line. This is known in the industry as the “300-volt line.” This means that based on the calculation results, copper wire from the telecommunications company may not come any closer than the 300-volt peak distance. This is the distance where copper wire must converted over to fiber-optic cable. This can help prevent any unwanted voltages from entering the phone companies’ telecommunications network.

The current formulae for calculating the 300-volt line, as listed in the standards, has led to misinterpretation and divergences of opinion, resulting in order-of-magnitude variations in calculated distances for virtually identical design input data. Furthermore, operating experience has shown that a rigorous application of theory results in unnecessarily large distances. This has caused many compromises within the telecommunications industry. The most noted one is a newer standard, IEEE Standard 1590-2003, that lists a 150-meter (~500-foot) mark as a default distance, if a ground potential rise study has not been conducted at a given location.


My Dreaming.........

Give me times.......

Greetings all, Sorry la two, three months of this I am extremely busy. So any activity does not have time to radio. Next month in November mid term exam will be arriving. It is busy with the want to study further. Sometimes I really just want to live radio. But the light Why Create this unique hobby that I will not leave.
So I was just a story. So in this busy time I do not have nor issue-trivial issue. If there were really only looking for articles to me. So do not look for problems involving me or with my hobby.


We need to explain What is Amateur Radio for public people

Amateur radio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Ham radio" redirects here. For other uses, see Ham radio (disambiguation).

An example of an amateur radio station with three transceivers, amplifiers, and a computer for logging and for digital modes. On the wall are examples of various awards, certificates, and a reception report card (QSL card) from a foreign amateur station.
Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service in which participants, called "hams", use various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public services, recreation and self-training.[1] Amateur radio operation is licensed by an appropriate government entity (for example, by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States[2]) as coordinated through the International Telecommunication Union.[3]
An estimated two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio.[4]
The term "amateur" does not imply a lack of skill or quality, but rather that amateur radio and its operators work outside of an official, governmental or commercial capacity.

for other info click here


Sebab minggu depan....

Alhamdulilah sampai hari ni aku telah buat apa yang patut semasa "semester breake". Minggu depan dah start kelas. Kali ni subjek yang agak "susah". Dah dekat 9 tahun aku tinggal programming ni. Dulu masa tahun 1997-1999 cerita betui ni aku jadi top sekejap saja.Masa tu tengah remaja lagi. Hari2 Jadi penggodam pc...... . Ahh tu cerita lama. Sekarang cerita baru. Yang penting jangan takbur, bongkak dan sombong. Jika kita rasa kitalah yang paling power tahu serba serbi. Ada orang lain lagi power.

Tapi dengan menuntut ilmu ini insyallah kita tidak berasa rugi. Lagi banyak anda belajar kita akan tahu bahawa diri kita ini masih lagi tak tahu akan serba serbi.

So rakan2 thanks atas support yang di berikan


Saya mencari "Hablumminannas" Di dalam Radio Amateur itu sendiri

Firman Allah SWT, “Akan ditimpa kehinaan ke atas mereka itu di mana saja mereka berada melainkan menghubungkan diri dengan Allah dan menghubungkan diri sesama manusia”.
Justru itu, dikatakan ibadah dalam Islam tergolong kepada dua(2) bahagian utama, iaitu:-
1) Hablumminallah
2) Hablumminannas
Hablumminallah, ialah ibadah manusia berhubungan dengan Allah, dan lebih bercorak individu.
Manakala, Hablumminannas ialah ibadah manusia berhubung dengan manusia.
Allah SWT memperingatkan kita bahawa akan ditimpa kehinaan di mana saja kita berada jika kedua soal ibadah tersebut tidak dapat ditegakkan.

Ia merupakan suatu persyarikatan manusia dalam mana satu-satu individu itu adalah seikatan dengan keluarganya, jirannya dan masyarakatnya.
Dalam radio amateur sendiri perlu ada ibadah seperti ini. Kita tak perlu memperlekehkan sebalik mencari apa yang di maksudkan. Jika abidah ini tidak ada. Tak ada gunanya kita bermain radio. Kita perlu sepakat dan membawa berkat.


Sedikit TiPs untuk Rakan SWL menghadapi RAE

Salam semua amateur radio di Malaysia Khasnya.

Kepada rakan swl saya tidak meninggalkan anda sendirian insyallah. Minggu depan anda semua akan berjuang dalam RAE. Sedikit tips ye! yang boleh di kongsi bersama.

1. Minggu terakhir anda tidak perlulah membaca semua theory, sop dengan detail sebaliknya mengingati apa yang telah di baca. Kalau baca hanya untuk fresh up your mind.

2. Seperti mana saya dulu. Minggu yang akhir ini sebaiknya anda perlu menjawap soalan objektif dan mencari jawapannya sahaja. Banyak soalan anda boleh dapati di internet, blog rakan2 amateur dan hardcopy.

3. Tidur awal. Anda akan tenang menghadapi Exam.

4. Persediaan ketika masuk ke dewan. Anda perlu datang awal sebolehnya. Sebabnya kalau anda lewat. Anda akan tergesa-gesa dan tergopoh-gapah apabila menjawab RAE. Bila anda datang awal pemikiran anda akan menjadi tenang di sebabkan masa yang awal itu anda sempat membuat semuanya seperti mencari parking kereta, semak soalan (fresh-up) dan semak document yang perlu. Jangan lupa membawa pensil 2B, pen. getah pemadam dan kalkulator. Pensil kena asah....bagi tajam.

5. Ketika memasuki dewan peperiksaan bacalah doa atau ayat al-quran yang anda tahu. Bagi yang bukan muslim anda juga perlu berdoa dan bertakafur untuk kejayaan anda. Ini dapat menolong anda menghindari daripada terlalai dan sebagainya. Syaitan tidak suka kepada majlis ilmu. Bacalah apa yang patut.

6. Kebiasanya soalan RAE di sediakan dalam dwi- bahasa ( bahasa melayu dan English). Anda perlu memilih bahasa mana yang menjadi keselesaan dan memudahkan anda. Pada saya, saya akan pilih dalam English. Sebabnya kebanyakkan buku yang menjadi reference dalam bahasa inggeris. Tidak menjadi kesalah jika anda paham dalam bahasa melayu. Cuma kadang2 bahasa melayu dari segi makna agak berlainan dan maksud yang panjang. Tapi itu tak menjada masalah. Saya percaya masa yang di berikan sangat cukup dan berlebihan. Percayalah!. Anda boleh membaca dalam english dan jika anda tidak paham cuba baca dalam bahasa melayu. Insyallah.

7. Jika masa di berikan selama 2 jam contohnya. Masa itu anda dah berjaya menjawab semua soalan. NASIHAT SAYA jangan keluar awal. Lagi 15 minit ok lah. Bukan apa rakan2 semua. Dengan masa yang ada masa tu buat semakan SEBAIK MUNGKIN. Anda mengambil bukan free ye!. So anda perlu bertanggungjawab pada diri anda buat semakan. Manalah tahu soalan yang anda tak tahu akan dapat jawapannya. Jika anda tidak berbuat demekian, kalau anda lulus ok alhamdulilah. Tapi jika anda GAGAL nanti anda akan jawab "menyesal aku tak semak betul2. Aduhai. Kena duit lagi nak ambil exam ni lagi".

8. Lepas dah selesai semua, tawakal kepada Allah anda dah berusaha.

9. Sengaja saya letak di akhir tips ini. Sebelum anda menduduki RAE exam. Pertama berdoa pada diri sendiri. Kedua mintak restu kedua ibubapa. Saya pasti mereka pun heran " exam apa plak anak aku nak ambil ni" insyallah mereka akan berdoa demi anak. Saya pun masih buat sebegini. Ketiga mintak restu ISTERI. Sebabnya sekarang ini beliau paling dekat. Yang terakhir menyelami anak2. Walaupun anda tanya anak anda. Anak:" abah lulus tak exam ni" insyallah dia akan kata lulus. Tapi anda jangan tanya anak:" abah gagal tak exam ni" Memang dia akan jawab gagal. Itu fitrah manusia ketika menjadi dewasa.

So Good luck untuk anda semua rakan2 SWL yang menghadapi akan "RAE"


Malware Attack!!!

Cuba anda lihat web mana yang di serang contohnya "jentayu web" yang memaparkan calendar hijrah dan satu lagi web yang memaparkan waktu sembahyang. Semoga Allah mempelihara Agama Islam. Insyallah.

info daripada blog rakan

Sekarang dah banyak website telah dijangkiti malware, risau gak kalau kena kan. Antara yang telah dijangkiti Gengblogger, TV3, Malaysiakini, Berita Harian dan website yang mempunyai iklan dari innity. Malware dari iklan Innity tu mungkin tersebar ke website lain yang mempunyai link ke website yang dijangkiti tersebut.
Bahaya malware ini mungkin website tersebut akan disenarai hitam oleh Google, mungkin ada kesan terhadap website anda, mungkin trafik akan menurun dan macam-macam kesan negatif lagi.

Jika Website anda dijangkiti Malware, cuba langkah-langkah dibawah:
1.Baca amaran merah malware dengan lengkap
2 Cari dan kenal pasti punca berlakunya Malware
3 Buang kod-kod yang berkaitan dengan Malware tersebut
4 Download dan install FREE latest version software Malwarebytes Anti-Malware
5 Scan laptop atau komputer

Anda juga boleh memeriksa di
Google Webmaster, dafter blog/website anda, dan periksa di Dashboard, pilih Diagnostic dan pilih Malware. Dia akan pamerkan jika blog/website anda diserang malware. Jika ada report hal berkenaan atau buang semua link-link atau iklan innity yang diserang malware tu


info daripada:- blog astra tengah


Kelas RAE Kembali lagi!!!!!!!!!!!! kepada calun2 bakal mengambil RAE 6/10/2010 dan berminat untuk mengambil kelas persediaan anjura ASTRA WILAYAH TENGAH, sila hubungi - 9M2GTR (012-3109869) , 9W2AKY (012-3353253) , 9W2MSG (016-3859795)..

Tentative Date: Sabtu, 2/10/2010 atau Ahad 3/10/2010
Tentative Guru: 9M2GTR & 9M2AGC
Tentative place: Shah Alam or Subang Jaya
Tentative Fees: RM50.00 (Duit Tabung Repeter & Alat Tulis)


I like its.... Malaysia Open, Kuala Lumpur 2010

DayDateStart Time
(Day / Evening Session)
Tentative Matches
SaturdaySeptember 2510:00amSingles Qualifying
SundaySeptember 2610:00amSingles Qualifying
MondaySeptember 2710:00amSingles Qualifying
Singles Main Draw - 1
st round
Doubles Main Draw - 1
st round
TuesdaySeptember 2811:00am / 6:00pmSingles Main Draw - 1st round
Doubles Main Draw - 1
st round
WednesdaySeptember 2911:00am / 6:00pmSingles Main Draw - 2nd round
Doubles Main Draw - 2
nd round
ThursdaySeptember 3011:00am / 6:00pmSingles Main Draw - 2nd round
Doubles Main Draw - Quarter Finals
FridayOctober 111:00pm / 6:00pmSingles Main Draw - Quarter Finals
Doubles Main Draw - Quarter Final
SaturdayOctober 22:30pmSingles Main Draw - Semi Finals
Doubles Main Draw - Semi Finals
SundayOctober 32:30pmSingles Main Draw - Final
Doubles Main Draw - Final


Software CWCom

CWCom adalah kod Morse chat progam untuk Windows dan sistem operasi NT. Anda boleh menggunakan CWCom untuk menghantar dan menerima Kod Morse dan mesej teks melalui LAN atau di internet! CWCom boleh menterjemah kod Morse untuk teks dan teks ke Kod Morse atau lampu berkelip, sehingga Anda tidak perlu tahu kod Morse untuk menggunakannya. Program ini mempunyai library Morse yang dikonfigurasikan - Anda boleh menentukan kod Morse anda sendiri dan teks yang berkaitan dengannya. Sebanyak 128 karakter dapat dipaparkan untuk simbol tunggal kod Morse!CWCom boleh dikonfigurasikan untuk menerima input dari sebuah kunci Morse, dengan menggunakan joystick port, port siri atau keyboard.

Untuk download klik sini CWCom
Info lanjut lawat website ini CWCom Website


Siapakah 9W2SIK-Tokwan

Allah itu maha mengetahui. Raya Aidilfitri tahun ini menemukan 9W2SIK-Tokwan. Air di cincang tidak akan putus melainkan kita sendiri yang merosakannya. Aku bersyukur alhamdulillah rupanya beliau adalah sedara kepada ayah ku 9w2kcn-Pak Mudi. So anak beranak, sepupu sepapat ada callsign. Itulah ke unikan radio amator selain hobi ia jugak dapat menjalin persaudaraan. Pangkat tokwan dengan aku ni adalah cucu beliau. Aku memang tidak menyangka semua ini. Walau apapun aku masih lagi ada tokwan. Aku doakan semoga tokwan dan tok sihat sejahtera, dimurahkan rezeki dan panjang umur.


New semester coming after raya

4 sept sabtu register untuk semester 3. Tu la sebab aku tak berani nak janji apa2 dgn rakan2. Aku dengan komitment aku. So mana2 rakan yang aku telah berjanji nak buat itu dan ini. Mohon seribu kemaafan. Kadang2 tak sempat nak buat semua. Lain kali insyallah. Subjek pecah kepala lepas ni.


Keputusan CW Exam 2 Sept 2010

Seramai 33 orang mendaftar untuk ambil CW Exam. 2 orang tidak hadir dan yang lulus CW pada hari ni seramai 8 orang. Tahniah kepada yang berjaya dan yang tidak berjaya cuba dan cuba lagi. Jangan putus Asa. Insyallah satu hari nanti anda akan berjaya. Sedikit usaha lagi insyallah di masa depan anda akan berjaya.
Antara rakan 9M2 yang datang memberi sokongan 9M2RIE, 9M2AIR, 9M2NAS, 9M2AU, 9M2RS, 9M2WT, 9M2ZC, 9M2MRL, 9M2ALL dan 9M2YOT. Thankyou all. Tak lupa jugak kepada rakan2 9W2 yang turut memberi sokongan antaranya yang sempat saya jumpa 9W2MDY, 9W2BMX, 9W2FJO, 9W2JBD dan yang lain2.

Keputusan tidak rasmi 8 orang telah lulus:-


Tahniah pada rakan saya ini kerana lulus CW:-

9w2bjt tahniah lulus

9w2lmf tahniah dah lulus

9w2bct cuba lagi bang adi mungkin kali ni bukan rezeki anda lagi.

Jawapan Penghantaran:


Jawapan Angka:

16072 63544 72910 38221 98910 25809 43677 56834 74396 55017

Gambar Sekitar CW Exam


Good Luck to all 9w2's in CW exam 2 sept 2010

I pray for a friend 9w2's success. Do not forget to seek the blessing of parents, wives and children. Insyaallah with perseverance, you will be successful. If you succeed you have to make other friends as well as successful as you.
If you fail does not mean you can not forever. Make failure as your inspiration. Try and try again. I also failed the first time. But with concerted efforts, I finally succeeded a second time.
Be able to 9w2's safe to be on the CW exam 2 september 2010

Alfatihah - Berita Kebajikan - Bonda 9W2YET meninggal dunia

Bonda kepada Saudara Farid Adley 9W2YET telah kembali ke rahmatullah tengahari tadi, 31/08/2010 .. semoga Allah S.W.T. mencucuri rahmat ke atas roh Allahyarhamah dan dihimpunkan bersama golongan orang-orang yang soleh. Al-fatihah.
sumber daripada blog astra tengah


Apadia geng 718?

Ok sebenarnya takdak apa maksud yang ganas dengan geng 718 ni. Cuma ini rekaan semata-mata. Maksud geng 718 ialah rakan-rakan amateur yang ada HF yang berjenama IC-718. Itu saja. Jadi siapa yang ada set HF tu kebetulan saja. Bukan kena register pun. Saja seronok2.


esok 12hb august 2010 exam lagi

exam lagi der......hari ini kepala aku sakit berdenyut-denyut


Itulah sahabat, rakan dalam Radio Amateur ni.....

Salam rakan amateur ,

Pagi-pagi lagi di kejutkan oleh rakan yang berada di labis johor. Katanya lama tak dengar "audio aku berkumandang di frequency". Dia telephone aku pagi ini, aku rasa terharu jugak. Aku memperjelaskan kepada beliau yang mana aku bukan tak mau QSO di frequency dan mana2 di repeater. Kepada rakan ku. Aku sebenarnya sedang menyambung pengajian lagi. Kadang-kadang kalau berkesempatan insyallah pegang 'PTT' dan 'QSO'. So terima kasih banyak2 rakan ku di labis itu. Insyallah saya masih ada jika anda hubungi saya insyallah saya akan menjawab. Kecuali duduk dalam bilik anti-fequency. Kalau duduk dlm bilik itu apa2 freq tidak dpt merobek masuk ke frequency itu.
Itulah yang dikatakan sahabat. Kadang2 musuh kita sekali pun boleh menjadi sahabat. Pandai2 lah kita menghampiri mereka. Walaupun jarak umur aku dengan rakanku ini jauh beza tapi demi semangat radio amatuer itu sendiri. Tiada perbezaan umur rakan tetap rakan dan sahabat tetap sahabat. Masa menentukan kita.
Kepada rakanku di labis, aku tidak bersembunyi tapi berisi. Masa aku di isi dengan maklumat yang aku tengah pelajari. Usah di risaukan. Insyallah sampai masanya aku akan memenuhi frequency untuk 'QSO'. Aku jarang di VHF dan juga jarang di HF. Atau mungkin boleh menghubungi talian hayat lain seperti YM dan FaceBook. Sedikit sebanyak dapat mengobat rindu di hati sebagai seorang sahabat dan rakan amateur.

YM: tuah_78
FB: Amry Amudi
Skype: tak ingat,lupa plak

Jadi kepada rakanku di labis. Aku doakan sihat sejahtera. Di bulan ramadhan yang akan datang ini di ucapkan " Selamat Berpuasa Di Bulan Ramadhan" dan " Mohon Maaf Jika Ada Salah dan Silap".......

De 9M2RIE- Amry


Selamat Berpuasa dan Beribadat Di bulan Ramadhan

Do'a malaikat Jibril menjelang Ramadhan " "Ya Allah tolong abaikan puasa ummat Muhammad, apabila sebelum memasuki bulan Ramadhan dia tidak melakukan hal-hal yang berikut:

* Tidak memohon maaf terlebih dahulu kepada kedua orang tuanya (jika masih ada);

* Tidak berma'afan terlebih dahulu antara suami isteri;

* Tidak bermaafan terlebih dahulu dengan orang-orang sekitarnya.

Maka Rasulullah pun mengatakan Amiin sebanyak 3 kali. Dapatkah kita
bayangkan, yang berdo'a adalah Malaikat dan yang meng-amiinkan adalah
Rasullullah dan para sahabat , dan dilakukan pada hari Jumaat.

Oleh itu SAYA MEMOHON MAAF jika saya ada berbuat kesalahan, baik yang tidak di sengaja mahupun yang di sengajakan , semoga kita dapat menjalani ibadah puasa dengan khusyuk, diberkati dan dirahmati Allah S.W.T, insyaallah



Selamat Ulang Tahun Astra Ke 13

Semua maju jaya. Takan Melayu hilang di Astra


Protoge dah LULUS- Tahniah Ramli

Tahniah pada anda ramli atau lebih di kenali dengan "Rem". Berkat usaha anda dah lulus pun. so boleh pkiaq callsign apa nak guna. Kepada rakan swl lain bang jeff v47 tahniah jugak dah lulus. Sesungguhnya kejayaan adalah milik anda. Semua berhak berjaya dengan usaha dan tabah menghadapai kegagalan. Jadi tahniah pada semua rakan2 swl yang lulus. Yang gagal jangan berputus asa cuba lagi.Insyallah satu hari nanti anda akan berjaya. Tahniah...tahniah dan jangan lupa anda perlu mengajar rakan2 swl yang baru semoga kesinambungan berterusan sampai bila-bila. Insyallah. Perihala semangat "Ham Spirit" itu sendiri. Jangan di nodai. Sama2 kita membangun dengan hati yang bersih. 73




Senaman Mata


Sedarkah anda, banyak aktiviti harian anda menyumbang kepada kerosakkan mata anda. Setiap hari anda melemahkan daya penglihatan anda tanpa anda sedari. Satu yang membimbangkan. Dan lebih merugikan anda terpaksa menghabiskan ratusan ringgit malahan ribuan ringgit untuk mata anda. Mahukan anda saya tunjukkan cara menggurangkan power cermin mata anda dari terus naik.

Atau kebarangkalian tinggi menggelakkan anda dari mula memakai cermin mata. Ini bukan omongan kosong kerana senaman mata telah dihasilkan semenjak tahun 1919 oleh pakar ophthamology di negara barat. Sehingga sekarang kajian diteruskan sehingga menghasilkan pelbagai jenis senaman mata. Melalui ujian yang dibuat mendapati senaman mata mampu meningkatkan daya penglihatan anda, mengurangkan kekaburan dan menguatkan otot mata. Ingin mencuba senaman mata yang mencabar danmembantu menguatkan penglihatan???

Anda diberikan gambarajah dua bulatan seperti dibawah

Anda perlu menghasilkan bulatan ketiga dengan daya penglihatan anda. Mampukah anda menghasilkan bulatan ketiga berdimensi??? Bulatan ketiga yang betul akan terapung di atas permukaan kertas.


Jangan mempermainkan semangat HAM.

Kalau maksud "ham spirit" itu tak tahu tak payah bercakap banyak. Ada orang tahu sebut, tapi tak tahu apa itu "ham spirit". Jangan terlampau taksub dengan seseorang. Mungkin anda di butakan atau di belenggu oleh orang yang mengambil kesempatan. Anda jangan terpengaruh dengan kata-kata. Orang yang mengambil kesempatan ini terus terang saya katakan, penuh dengan agenda masing-masing. Hati-hati memilih kawan. Baru berkawan setahun jagung anda kata bagus. Jadi berhati-hatilah.
Orang yang tak menghiraukan apa itu sahabat, kawan, ikatan silaturahim dan sebagainya sudah pasti tidak ambil peduli. Yang dia tau untung saja. Beringat kadang-kadang satu masa anda berada di atas, anda boleh buat apa saja. Tetapi jika anda jatuh, koyak, rebah dan bergulung sudah pasti anda berada di bawah. Kemungkinan anda menerima balasan atas apa yang telah anda lakukan. Sesuatu yang buruk itu akan dibalas dengan buruk.
Kepada semua berhati-hati bercakap, memilih kawan dan jangan terlampau taksub dengan sesuatu samaada orang ataupun kebendaan. Anda perlu sedar dan bertindak jika anda sedang di permainkan. Bila anda terlambat, memang susah nak berpatah balik mungkin ketika itu anda di kaburi dengan kemewahan, keselesaan dan ketaksuban.
"Jangan jadikan hidup anda dikaburi dan jangan mempermainkan semangat HAM itu sendiri"


Berita Kebajikan

INFO ini daripada blog Astra Tengah:

ASTRA WILAYAH TENGAH baru mendapat berita bahawa seorang rakan ham kita iaitu Saudara Mohd Hamizi bin Mohd Ariffin callsign 9W2ZEY (keahlian ASTRA #0374) baru ditimpa musibah. Kediaman beliau dan keluarga di No. 11, Tmn. Sri Nanding, Hulu Langat, Selangor telah hangus dalam satu kebakaran pada 11hb Julai 2010 baru-baru ini. Alhamdulillah, beliau dan keluarga terselamat tetapi kediaman dan segala barang-barang dan dokumen penting beliau hilang 100% dalam kebakaran tersebut.

Lihat disini: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FY7HjwB4HcM&feature=player_embedded

Dengan ini ASTRA WILAYAH TENGAH melancarkan kutipan derma kilat bagi membantu saudara kita 9W2ZEY agar dapat meringankan beban yang ditanggung beliau. Segala sumbangan wang ringgit boleh disalur terus kepada akaun bank beliau seperti di bawah:

Nama: Mohd Hamizi bin Mohd Ariffin
Akaun: 112380222686
Bank: Maybank Berhad

Jika anda berhajat menderma barangan atau mendapat keterangan lanjut, bolehlah menghubungi beliau di talian 012-6409537.

Sekian, terima kasih.

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